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4 different types of Fermentation Processes

Data: 2020-07-20


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4 different types of Fermentation Processes

Solid-State Fermentation

Solid-state (or substrate) fermentation (SSF) are define as fermentation that place in solid supporting, non-specific, natural state, and low moisture content. In this process, substrates such as nutrient rich waste can be reused. Bran, bagasse, and paper pulp are the solid substrates used in SSF.

Since the process is slow the fermentation of substrate takes long time. So, the discharge of the nutrients is in controlled manner. It requires less moisture content, so it is the best fermentation technology used for fungi and microorganism.

However, this process is not applicable for bacteria, because this fermentation cannot be used for organism that requires high water condition.

Submerged Fermentation

In SmF, microorganism required a controlled atmosphere for proficient manufacture of good quality end products; attain optimum productivity and high yield.

Batch, fed-batch, or continuous modes are used in industrial bioreactors for the production of different type of microorganism in broad range.

For the manufacture of alcoholic beverages (whisky, beer, brandy, rum, and wine), preservatives or acidifiers (lactic acids, citric, and vinegar) are used in food industry and for flavor enhancers (monosodium glutamate) or sweeteners (aspartate) amino acid are used in submerged batch cultivation.

In this part, there are different ways of submerged cultivation using microorganisms in bioreactors. Here we have discussed briefly about typical features and advantages and faults of each fermentation methods are displayed. Lastly, the production of microorganism in liquid medium in various type of food industrial product has been determined as the most important application for continuous, batch, and fed-batch cultivation.

Batch Cultivation

Batch culture is a closed system which works under aseptic condition. In these cultivations, inoculums, nutrients, and medium are mixed in the bioreactor in which the volume of the culture broth remains constant.

Substrates Used for Fermentation

It is very important to select a good substrate as the product of fermentation extremely varies. This technique is used for optimization of every substrate. This is mainly due to the cause that microorganism reacts in different way in every substrate.

The rate of consumption of different nutrient vary in every substrate, and so that their productivity. Some commonly used substrates in SSF are rice straw, vegetable waste, wheat bran, fruit bagasse, synthetic media, and paper pulp. Liquid media, molasses, waste water, vegetable juices, and soluble sugar are common substrates used in SmF to extract bioactive compounds.