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Application of solid substrate fermentation(2)

Data: 2020-08-14


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Application of solid substrate fermentation(2)

Organic Acids

Gallic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid, kojic acid, and lactic acid are various acid produced by SSF. Wheat bran, de-oiled rice bran, sugarcane, carob pods, coffee husk, kiwi fruit peels, pineapple wastes, grape pomace, and apple are some agro-industrial wastes which are very resourceful substrates for production of citric acid in SSF. For the production of citric acid from Aspergillus, pineapple waste was used as substrate. Sugarcane bagasse impregnated with glucose and CaCO3 for the production of lactic acid from Rhizopus oryzae is used.

Secondary Metabolites

Fungus produce secondary metabolite, gibberellic acid, in its stationary phase. Gibberellic acid production increases in SSF system. Gathering of gibberellic acid was 1.626 times greater in SSF than SmF using Gibberellafujikuroi in the production of gibberellic acid in which wheat bran is used as substrate.


Cephamycin C, Cyclosporin A, Penicillin, Neomycin, Iturin, and Cephalosporins are some common antibiotics produced from SSF. Penicillin is produced from Penicillum chrysogenum in which wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse are used as substrate under high moisture content (70%). In SSF, antibiotic penicillin is produced from Actinomycetes and fungi through mixed cultures.


Today, ethanol is the most extensively used biofuel. Even though it is very easier to produce ethanol using SmF, it is preferred because of low water requirement, little volumes of fermentation mash, end product protection is inhibited and less liquid water disposal, it decreases pollution problem and it is most commonly used for ethanol production because of abundant availability.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used for ethanol production in SSF of apple pomace supplemented with ammonium sulfate in controlled fermentation. Sweet potato, rice starch, wheat flour, potato starch, and sweet sorghum are commonly used substrate.

Biocontrol Agents

On the bases of different mode of action, fungal agent has greater potential to act as biocontrol agents. To control mosquitoes Liagenidium giganteum is used as fungal agent. It works by encysting on their larvae. Here they use larvae as a substrate for growth.


Nicotinic acid, vitamin B12, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamins B6 are the water-soluble enzyme produced on SSF with the help of different species of Rhizophus and Klebsiella, which is well-known producer of vitamin B12.