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Common classification of bioreactors

Data: 2020-11-24

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Common classification of bioreactors
Bioreactor refers to a device system that utilizes the special functions of enzymes or organisms to carry out biochemical reactions in vitro. It is a key equipment in the process of biological reactions. Bioreactors have the advantages of low cost, simple equipment, high efficiency, significant product effects, and reduction of industrial pollution.

Let us take a look at the common classifications of bioreactors.

  1. Mechanically stirred bioreactor


The large-scale microbial fermentation process in the pharmaceutical industry-penicillin production is carried out in a mechanically stirred bioreactor. And so far, the choice of bioreactor for new biological processes is still a mechanically stirred reactor. 

The mechanically stirred reactor can be applied to most biological processes and is a standardized universal product. Mechanically stirred reactors are mostly used for batch reactions.


  2, Airlift bioreactor


Airlift bioreactor is a kind of bioreactor without mechanical stirring which is widely used. The airlift bioreactor is developed on the basis of the bubble column reactor. It uses the jet function of air and the difference in fluid severity to cause the circulating flow of the reaction liquid to achieve liquid stirring, mixing and oxygen transfer.

The airlift bioreactor is one of the five major reactors in the field of plant cell culture. Its fluidity is more uniform than other bioreactors, and its structure is simple. 

There are no other bioreactors if there are more leakage points and As early as the 1970s, the plant cell fermentation culture has mostly adopted airlift bioreactors.


  3, Bubble column bioreactor


Bubble column bioreactor is a gas-liquid two-phase reactor, which refers to a reactor in which gas is bubbled through a liquid layer containing reactants or catalysts to achieve a gas-liquid phase reaction process.

Bubble column bioreactor uses gas as the dispersed phase and liquid as the continuous phase, involving the gas-liquid interface. Usually the liquid phase contains solid suspended particles, such as solid culture medium, microbial cells, etc.

The fluid movement in the reactor changes with the gas velocity of the dispersed phase, which is generally divided into two types: one is uniform bubbling flow, where the gas velocity is low, the bubble size is uniform, and the float rises more regularly; As the air flow increases, the small bubbles are merged by the large bubbles, and at the same time, the circulating flow of the liquid is caused. This is called non-uniform bubbling flow.

The content of a simple bubble column reactor is an empty column, and the bottom of the column uses a sieve plate or a gas distributor to distribute the gas. 

Its working principle is to use the bubbles in the culture medium to drive the liquid to mix when rising, and to supply the oxygen in the bubbles to the bacteria in the culture medium.