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Antibiotics

Data: 2020-07-26

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Antibiotics

The most important extract from microorganism using fermentation technology is antibiotics. It is a bioactive compound. Penicillin from Penicillium notatum is the first antibiotic produced from fermentation.



It was completed in 1940s using SSF and SmF but today P. chrysogenum isolates are higher yielding producers. Aminocillins, Carbapencins, Monobactams, Cephalosporins and Penicillins together they are known as β-lactam antibiotics. Some other antibiotics like Tetracyclin, Streptomycin, Cyclosporin, Cephalosporin and Surfactin are manufactured from this process.



Streptomyces clavuligerus, Nocardialactamdurans, and Streptomyces cattleya produces Cephamycin C from sunflower cake and cotton-de-oiled cake in which wheat raw is supplemented in SSF system as substrates for manufacturing Cephamycin C. In SSF, penicillin was produced by actinomycetes and fungi in mixed cultures.




In current time, the growth of proper substrates has led to the wide spread use of SSF more than SmF. On the other hand, some results show that several microbial stains are extra suitable to SSF and others are more suitable for SmF. Thus, this technology is determined on the bases of microorganism that is being used for production.



Recently, it has been studied that several antibiotics produced through SSF are more constant and higher in quantity than SmF.



This is associated to minor production of bioactive substance that are intermediary compounds in SSF. However, the characteristics of the substrate material and their quality make SSF implementation limited.



Due to this property, it is compulsory to check the production ability of different substrates earlier than optimization of the fermentation process.



Typically, in the beginning of batch cultivation, the bioreactors are filled with sterilized medium and the quantity of viable cell is known which is inoculated in the bioreactor. It is beneficial for the construction of biomass (Baker’s yeasts) and primary metabolites (lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid or ethanol production).



In food industries, organic acids used as preservatives or acidifiers (lactic acids, citric acids, and acetic acids), alcoholic beverages (wine, beer, and distilled spirits i.e. brandy, whisky, and rum) and sweeteners (e.g., aspartate) or amino acids used as flavoring agents (e.g., monosodium glutamate) are the various product manufactured by submerged batch cultivation.





Fermentation of whisky is taken as a good example; the manufacturing of distilled spirits is made from wood or stainless steel and it is made in simple cylindrical vessels known as wash backs.



Even it is very difficult to clean it but they used it, mainly in malt whisky distilleries. In this process, wort is pumped and cooled to 20 °C and inoculated with the yeast cells.



It has been found that manufacturing of citric acid has reached 1.8 × 10 6 tons in 2010 and about 90% of this is synthesized by the fungus Aspergillus niger from sugar containing material like sugarcane, corn, and sugar beet and food industry consumed 60% of it. We can follow surface liquid fermentation, SSF, and submerged liquid fermentation for the production of citric acid in industrial scale, however, the end predominates.





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