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The role of lactic acid bacteria in aquaculture

Data: 2020-09-27


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The role of lactic acid bacteria in aquaculture

Lactic acid bacteria refers to a class of non-spore-free, Gram-stain-positive bacteria whose main product of fermented sugars is lactic acid. 

It is a general term for a class of bacteria that can use fermentable carbohydrates to produce large amounts of lactic acid. Lactic acid bacteria can perform many physiological functions in animals. 

A large number of research data show that lactic acid bacteria can promote animal growth, regulate the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, maintain microecological balance, thereby improving gastrointestinal function; improve food digestibility and biological potency; reduce serum cholesterol, control endotoxins; inhibit intestines Growth of spoilage bacteria in the tract: improve the body's immunity and so on. 

The organic acids, special enzymes, acid bacteria and other substances produced by lactic acid bacteria through fermentation have special physiological functions, which can stimulate tissue development and have an effect on the body's nutritional status, physiological functions, immune response and stress response.

Application in aquaculture:

1. Lactic acid bacteria degrade carbohydrates to produce lactic acid to lower the PH value in the animal's intestinal tract, thereby inhibiting the growth and reproduction of anaerobic pathogenic bacteria that are intolerant to acid in the intestine, and strengthening the immunity and disease resistance of animals.

2. Lactic acid bacteria exert their metabolic activity normally in the organism, and can directly provide the host with available essential amino acids and various vitamins (B vitamins and K vitamins), and can also improve the biological activity of mineral elements, thereby providing the host with Provides essential nutrients, enhances the nutritional metabolism of animals, and directly promotes their growth. Dal min et al. (2001) reported that lactic acid bacteria can improve water quality and increase the survival rate, growth rate and health of shrimp.

3. The metabolites of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid and other organic acids, can help the absorption of calcium, iron and vitamins. 

Under certain conditions, the metabolite of lactic acid forms calcium lactate, which promotes the molting growth of aquatic animals, especially crustaceans.

4. The B vitamins and fetal fatty acid synthesized by the growth of lactic acid bacteria can neutralize the toxicity of the substances in the animal body, especially can alleviate the toxicity of the death of Vibrio bacteria in the organism, protect the liver and enhance the liver's detoxification and detoxification functions.

5. Lactobacillus decomposes protein, but does not produce spoilage products, and is easier to be absorbed by the intestines of breeding organisms. The acidic substances, lactic acid bacteria, peroxide and CO2 in its metabolites can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, so lactic acid bacteria are called green and environmentally friendly. 

The "spectral antibacterial drug" with no side effects can effectively inhibit prawn diseases caused by various pathogenic Vibrio species such as Vibrio nigeria, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

6. Lactobacillus can produce a large amount of lactic acid bacteria, which has a certain inhibitory effect on most bacteria. As a prokaryote, lactic acid bacteria also have a certain inhibitory effect on it. 

Lactic acid bacteria have a biological removal effect on the microcystins produced by cyanobacteria such as Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena algae and Cyanobacteria in eutrophic water.

7. Lactic acid bacteria can decompose the organic matter produced by the residual bait in the water under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, thereby forming a suitable environment for the reproduction and growth of beneficial bacteria and improving the microbial population in the organism. 

Lactic acid can reduce and stabilize the pH of the water body and maintain the acid-base balance of the water body. When the species grows rapidly, the lactic acid bacteria can stimulate the reproduction of algae-eating organisms to achieve the effect of decomposing the aging algae and inhibiting the growth of algae, maintaining the balance of the bacterial phase and the halo phase to achieve Purpose of water purification.

In summary, lactic acid bacteria microecological preparations provide an efficient, improper, and pollution-free new choice for feed, animal husbandry and aquaculture. As more and more new bacteria and specific strains are used in production, we It is necessary to fully consider the characteristics of the animal flora and the relationship between the host soil and the environment, and use it scientifically and rationally to achieve the greatest ecological and economic benefits.