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Working principle and performance characteristics of centrifugal pump

Data: 2020-12-29

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Working principle and performance characteristics of centrifugal pump

The centrifugal pump is called centrifugal pump because it lifts water to a high place under the action of the centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotation of the impeller.

Before the pump is started, fill the pump and the inlet pipe with water. After the pump is running, under the action of the centrifugal force generated by the high-speed rotation of the impeller, the water in the impeller channel is thrown around and pressed into the volute, forming a vacuum at the impeller inlet. The water in the pool is sucked along the suction pipe under the external atmospheric pressure to supplement this space.

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Then the inhaled water is thrown out by the impeller through the volute and enters the outlet pipe. It can be seen that if the impeller of the centrifugal pump rotates continuously, it can continuously absorb and press water, and the water can continuously rise from low to high or far. 


General characteristics of centrifugal pumps

(1) The flow direction of water along the centrifugal pump is sucked along the axial direction of the impeller, and flows out perpendicular to the axial direction, that is, the direction of water flow in and out is 90° with each other.

(2) Since the centrifugal pump forms a vacuum suction by the impeller inlet, it is necessary to fill the pump and suction pipe with water before starting, or use a vacuum pump to exhaust the air to form a vacuum, and the pump casing and suction pipe must be strictly sealed. There must be no air leakage, otherwise a vacuum will not be formed and the water will not be sucked up.
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(3) Since it is impossible to form an absolute vacuum at the impeller inlet, the suction height of the centrifugal pump cannot exceed 10 meters, plus the loss along the way caused by the water flowing through the suction pipe, the actual allowable installation height (the height of the pump axis from the suction water surface) is much smaller than 10 meters. 

If the installation is too high, no water will be absorbed; in addition, because the atmospheric pressure in mountainous areas is lower than that in plains, the installation height of the same pump in mountainous areas, especially in high mountainous areas, should be lowered, otherwise it cannot suck up water.


Centrifugal pumps are currently the most widely used, such as: pickling and painting processes in automobile manufacturing; electrolyte transportation in non-ferrous metal smelting; chlorine water, wastewater treatment and acid addition in ion exchange membrane caustic soda projects.